The location of a mobile phone can be determined using client software installed on the handset.
In addition, if the handset is also equipped with GPS then significantly more precise location information can be then sent from the handset to the carrier. Another approach is to use a fingerprinting-based technique,    where the "signature" of the home and neighboring cells signal strengths at different points in the area of interest is recorded by war-driving and matched in real-time to determine the handset location. This is usually performed independent from the carrier.
The key disadvantage of handset-based techniques, from service provider's point of view, is the necessity of installing software on the handset. It requires the active cooperation of the mobile subscriber as well as software that must be able to handle the different operating systems of the handsets. Google Maps. One proposed work-around is the installation of embedded hardware or software on the handset by the manufacturers, e.
This avenue has not made significant headway, due to the difficulty of convincing different manufacturers to cooperate on a common mechanism and to address the cost issue. Another difficulty would be to address the issue of foreign handsets that are roaming in the network. The type of information obtained via the SIM can differ from that which is available from the handset. For example, it may not be possible to obtain any raw measurements from the handset directly, yet still obtain measurements via the SIM. Crowdsourced Wi-Fi data can also be used to identify a handset's location.
Hybrid positioning systems use a combination of network-based and handset-based technologies for location determination. Both types of data are thus used by the telephone to make the location more accurate i.
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Alternatively tracking with both systems can also occur by having the phone attain its GPS-location directly from the satellites , and then having the information sent via the network to the person that is trying to locate the telephone. In order to route calls to a phone, the cell towers listen for a signal sent from the phone and negotiate which tower is best able to communicate with the phone. As the phone changes location, the antenna towers monitor the signal, and the phone is "roamed" to an adjacent tower as appropriate.
By comparing the relative signal strength from multiple antenna towers, a general location of a phone can be roughly determined. Other means make use of the antenna pattern, which supports angular determination and phase discrimination.
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Newer phones may also allow the tracking of the phone even when turned on and not active in a telephone call. This results from the roaming procedures that perform hand-over of the phone from one base station to another. A phone's location can be shared with friends and family, posted to a public web site, recorded locally, or shared with other users of a smartphone app.
The inclusion of GPS receivers on smartphones has made geographical apps nearly ubiquitous on these devices. Specific applications include:. In January , the location of her iPhone as determined by her sister helped Boston police find kidnapping victim Olivia Ambrose. Locating or positioning touches upon delicate privacy issues, since it enables someone to check where a person is without the person's consent.
In Malte Spitz held a TED talk  on the issue of mobile phone privacy in which he showcased his own stored data that he received from Deutsche Telekom after suing the company. He described the data, which consists of 35, lines of data collected during the span of Germany 's data retention at the time, saying, "This is six months of my life [ Spitz concluded that technology consumers are the key to challenging privacy norms in today's society who "have to fight for self determination in the digital age.
Chinese government has proposed using this technology to track commuting patterns of Beijing city residents.
In Europe most countries have a constitutional guarantee on the secrecy of correspondence , and location data obtained from mobile phone networks is usually given the same protection as the communication itself. In the United States , there is a limited constitutional guarantee on the privacy of telecommunications through the Fourth Amendment.
United States that the government violates the Fourth Amendment by accessing historical records containing the physical locations of cellphones without a search warrant. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It has been suggested that this article be merged into Cellphone surveillance.
Discuss Proposed since October This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Carpenter v. California Satellite navigation Secure telephone United States v. Jones United States v. Karo Vehicle tracking system.
BBC News. Retrieved Proceedings Cat. PC World. For all these questions we are having a simple yet important answer and that is FreePhoneSpy.
You have heard it right. This is an amazing and useful application that is used by a large number of people who wish to track the location of their loved ones. If you are the one who works abroad and does not get enough time to check whether your kid is going to school regularly or not, then this application is of great help. It lets you know whether your kid is actually in school and coaching or moving around with friends.
Sometimes when a spouse doubts his or her partner this application can help you clear your doubt. If he or she is cheating on you, you can easily catch them red-handed with evidence. With the help of this application, not only location can be tracked but monitoring their call logs, contacts, browsing history and access to social media accounts can also be done.
The application is completely undetectable and is compatible with all the devices.
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Simply use this app and track their real-time location without them knowing. To use this application, you have to first access the target device and turn on the unknown sources option. When you are done with it, go to the official website of FreePhoneSpy i. Here on this website, you will get all the details about the application.
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